Unit 11 Role of Public Health in health and social care
Table of Contents
1.1 Role of different agencies in identifying levels in health and disease in communities. 5
1.2 Statistics on the incidence and spread of infectious disease. Explain the epidemiology of one infectious and non-infectious disease and relevance of statistics in context to public health. 7
1.3 Evaluate the effectiveness of different approaches and strategies to control the incidence of disease in communities. 8
TASK-2 Be able to investigate the implications of illness and disease in communities for the provision of health and social care services. 9
2.1 Determine what are the current approaches to the provision of services for the people with disease or illness. 9
2.2 Explain the relationship between the prevalence of different diseases and the requirements of services to support individuals with the health and social care service provision. 9
2.3 analyze the impact of current life style choices on future needs for health and social care services. 10
TASK-3 Understand the factors influencing health and wellbeing of individuals in health and social care settings 11
3.1 Asses the health and well being priorities for individuals in a particular health or social care setting. 11
3.2 Evaluate the effectiveness of strategies, systems, policies in health and social care setting. 11
3.3 Discuss changes that could be made to improve the health and wellbeing of individuals in a health and social care setting. 12
3.4 Choose and evaluate any activity that has been implemented to encourage behavior change for maximizing health for individuals in a health or social care setting. 12
In general terms a person is considered healthy if he is free from disease. But in wider terms health contains many more element which includes dynamic state of mental, well being socially, physically and spiritually. Public health is a broader concept and reflects the efforts which we do collectively in order to ensure the conditions under which people remain healthy in a particular community (Lincoln et al, 2006). After the introduction of public health system the government can ensure their people and promote the physical and mental health of the people along with safeguarding them from and sever disease and permanent disability. Preventing from spreading of diseases, prevention from injuries and safeguarding against the environmental hazards shall be the key responsibilities and of the public health system. The present paper has been divided into three tasks. Under the first task we would study the role played by the different agencies in identifying level of health and disease. After the task of studying the role of agencies, we would research on the effects caused by the disease in relation of health and social care. The last task i.e. is the third one would the day to day factor which the effect the health and social well being of person in health and social care.
1.1 Role of different agencies in identifying levels in health and disease in communities
Now days there are many local, national and international agencies which identify the levels of health and disease in the people at large. Different authorities play different role at within their power. The trusts and authorities at local level play a critical role while the process of identification is carried out by the government at national level. In the same way the international health agencies which include voluntary organizations, World Health organization and the European Union conduct the work of identifying the level of health and disease in communities.
Without the help of local agencies the work of health identification cannot be done. There are many agencies which at their own local level conduct the work of identification of health and disease. Such agencies include public safety agencies, human services and charity organization. Their role in the public healthcare system would be to retain the primary healthcare responsibilities in the country (Merino, 2012). The health department at local level would conduct the work of providing care to patients, making recommendations for improvement of public health care system, supporting the local communities and local healthcare systems. The local government shall lead the local health departments. In addition to this, clinical commissioning groups, local authorities’ commission and local health watch have been formed to identify the level of health & disease (Gov UK, 2015).
The work of development and maintenance shall be carried by the agencies at national level. The work relating to improvement of healthcare system, building the infrastructure, training and education shall be carried by the agencies at national level. The work of developing the policies and making the plans for supporting the health care system shall be the responsibilities of the national authorities. At last the overall effectiveness of the healthcare system present in the organization shall be determined the agencies working at national level. The esteemed organizations which include Public health England, NHS England, Health Education England, and NHS trust development authority and NICE work for the above mentioned works. The main work of the organization is to facilitate the local organization with finance and also act as a leader in national scenario.
In order to identify the level of health and disease the world level organization WHO was formed WHO commission on social determinant of health (CSDH).WHO acts as the umbrella health agency which is involved in coordinating legal and non-legal activities for the various organizations (Lincoln et al, 2006). WHO monitors the status of health care and forms and implement the policies for reduction of health care inequalities. The developing countries are funded by WHO for their health plans. Further the WHO monitors the fund given to the countries and assesses the effectiveness of the operations carried from such funds to ensure the minimum level of health and disease in the country.
1.2 Statistics on the incidence and spread of infectious disease. Explain the epidemiology of one infectious and non-infectious disease and relevance of statistics in context to public health.
TB is an infectious disease and is a major problem for the world. Total 7892 cases were reported in 2013 in UK. There was decline in the TB cases in England, Scotland, and Northern Ireland while it remained same in Wales (Cohen, Opal and Powderly, 2010). In UK London has recorded the highest case. About 37% of people suffer from tuberculosis in England. Talking with the age group of 5 to 14 years consist of 3%, 15 to 44 years consist of 60% of patients, 45-64 years consist of 23%, age of 65 years and about 1.4 percent was less than 5 years (McKenzie, 2009).
In UK the rate of TB in born children under 15 years age was 2.0 per 100000.00. At the same time, the child-to-adult ratio in notification rate has declined over the past five years down from 0.29 in 2008 to 0.20 in 2013 (Healey, 2010).
Now a day the major non infectious and non curable disease is cancer. Around 11 million people and 12.5% deaths took place due to cancer. As per an estimate there could be 15 million more cases by 2020. Now a day’s the most common type of cancer which have been diagnosed are Lung, Breast and Colorectal cancer. The major causes of cancer are smoking and chewing tobacco. According to a research which has been conducted worldwide it has been worked out that in 1 in 2 men while 1 in 3 has the probability of having cancer disease.
The rate of mortality from the cancer caused by the stomach cancer has fallen by 35% while the cervical cancer by 29%. However the scenario for the women cancer is not similar to it. About 15 types of cancer are caused by smoking. About 90% death caused by lung cancer are caused by smoking. Leaving smoking at the age of 30 has made a reduction in lung cancer by 10%. In UK, 4% cancer is caused by infection like Helibactor pylori. Hepatitis B and C. HPV vaccine can help to reduce the number of cancer diagnosis (Holland, Olsen and Florey, 2007).
1.3 Evaluate the effectiveness of different approaches and strategies to control the incidence of disease in communities
In today’s world one has to beware of disease as it may attack body, even if some person having disease contacts the other which is not affected. The major concern in today’s world is spreading of communicable disease. In order to prevent the spreading of the infectious disease the government should take effective steps.
Proper sanitation system and safe & sufficient supply of water will be very helpful in preventing the spread of communicable disease. Proper system of vaccination should be developed. Each and every people should be immunized from the caught of measles. Government should take care that each and every person should get proper nutritious food so that the disease may be prevented. Necessary arrangements should be made for basic health care and emergency cases. Firstly illness and health information system should be developed and proper mechanism should be made for monitoring it. These above mentioned strategies will prevent the spread of infectious diseases (Black and Gruen, 2005).
The research program for detecting the emerging pathons and the disease which they may cause shall be carried on frequent basis. For caring such research the government should develop fully equipped and advanced laboratory. Further the govt. should develop electronic communication for fostering disease surveillance and response.
With the strengthening of the public health infrastructure the spread of infectious disease can be prevented, research work can be carried down efficiently and preventive measures can be made effective. All the measure will enhance the capability of UK to fight with diseases which are eating the back bone of the nation. This will also provide training opportunity in infectious disease epidemiology and diagnosis in UK (McCarthy and Rose, 2010).
2.1 Determine the current approaches to the provision of services for the people with disease or illness.
The priorities have to be properly managed, to help the people suffering from illness. Active support for self-management is required in order to enable the students chooses healthy behavior and a significant transformation of the patient care-giver into coordinate partnership. To improve the health outcome the only source is the self management.
Instead of curing the disease one should think of preventing it. Prevention from universal should be priority. The chances of disease can be reduced by manifolds. Today heart diseases are very common. It can be avoided up to 80% if common lifestyle risks are eliminated. Community level campaigns can be organized to prevent diseases (Stavans, 2010)
Development of responses to the people with mental and physical health is yet another priority. It will create an impact in terms experience of the patient and clinical outcomes.
2.2 Explain the relationship between the prevalence of different diseases and the requirements of services to support individuals with the health and social care service provision.
There is direct nexus between the disease and the health services. The nature and type of disease decides the type, quantum and quality of services. Various factors such as volume of services, type of care are factors that make a link between need and demand. If the people are healthy then the existence of health services shall be considered fruitful. The agenda of health services is to make improvement in the health of people.
The prevalence of disease may affect the population at large. Mainly the presence of communicable of disease can massive bad impact as the disease may spread from one person to another. It is the duty of health care service to measure the quantum and consequences of the disease. The environmental health services are also provided by the health care system in order to culminate the prevalence of environmentally provoked disease that occurs due to low income or poor housing (Merino, 2012).
2.3 analyze the impact of current life style choices on future needs for health and social care services.
Life style has direct relation with disease. If the life style is good the health of the person may be better. For eg If a person smokes, there will be more chances of him getting in the trap of cancer. Hence, attainment of effective life style is the major aim of current public and health policy. From the research made it has been ascertained that the overall consumption of alcohol has risen in UK. However there is fall in drinking limits of person from 39% in 2004 to 35% in 2005. Alcohol drinking is injurious to health and it results in death. The rate of deaths caused due to alcohol has increased from 0.69 per 1000 population in 1999 to 1.29 per 1000 in 2005. The health care department can organize seminars or campaigns to educate people about ill effects of drinking alcohol (Hunnicutt, 2010).
Apart from drinking, smoking has become part of the life style of people in UK. It has become a part of standard of living. There has been registered a decline in smoking rate from 45% in 1971 to 24% in 2005. Due to this decline in smoking habits, a decline in smoking related illness has also been registered. The health and the social care service should implement steps to make the situation even better in future (Burgess, Shaw and Kellas, 2011).
3.1 Asses the health and well being priorities for individuals in a particular health or social care setting.
Health priorities change from people to people. Now a day’s people have many heath priorities. Today obesity is the major concern for the people. Major reason for obesity is the eating habits such as having excess fast food. Today many people are affected from obesity and with the problem of obesity the human body is affected with many diseases. Controlling and reducing the bad habits of smoking is a another important area of health and well being priority of individuals in health and social care settings. These bad habits affect the individuals’ health as well as his wealth. Furthermore, the abuse of substances like drug and alcohol has detrimental effect on the health of the individuals (McCarthy and Rose, 2010). Controlling drinking of alcohol is also another important area of health and well being priority. Excess drinking of alcohol increases the risk of stroke and also increases the risk of cancer. All the bad habits reduction mentioned above are major priorities of the people.
3.2 Evaluate the effectiveness of strategies, systems, policies in health and social care setting.
All the priorities mentioned need hard steps to be taken for their implementation. A proper plan has to be made and executed for the meeting the priorities and well being of individuals. People should be educated about the bad effects of smoking and drinking through the means of organizing seminars. People should be made aware that habits of these things have bad effects on the health of the individual. People showed the video clippings of the people who suffer from cancer so that they may leave this bad habit due the fear of pain or death. Proper plans should be made so that, the sick people may get treatment on time. Researches should be conducted in order to introduce better technologies and medicines to provide health and well being of the individuals (Mandelstam, 2007).
3.3 Discuss changes that could be made to improve the health and wellbeing of individuals in a health and social care setting.
The numbers of changes in the life of people made the more the chances are that people will be free from disease. There are many proposed changes that can be made to increase the of the people and increase the chance of well being of individual in health and social care settings. Plans and policies should be made for promotion better health in sections of the community. Provisions should be made for quicker access to services and providing immediate support when the individuals require care (Merino, 2012). The govt. should lay more emphasis on the prevention of disease. More pressure should be made on improving the standard of living of the people like improving the sanitation system etc. Life style of the people should be changed so that the people can live a independent and active life. Educate people about the bad effects of the smoking and drinking and discourage them from doing this.
3.4 Choose and evaluate any activity that has been implemented to encourage behavior change for maximizing health for individuals in a health or social care setting.
The activities which can be undertaken in order to encourage behavior change for maximizing the health of the individuals are as mentioned below:
People should be educated about the obesity. The methods of overcoming the obesity and the side effects of the obesity should also be thought. People should be provided with a balanced diet chart and provided the knowledge of physical exercises.
The smoking habit one person affects the health of persons along with the person near and dear the smoker. List of smokers should be made and education about the bad effect of smoking should be made to them. After keeping in view the standards as prescribed in the Air Quality, the quality of the air should be checked. Efforts should be made for providing better sanitation facility to the public. Then steps will be taken for providing access to community services for people who abuse drugs and alcohol (Krishna Regmi, 2013).
Heath care services should be improved. Proper health care services should be provided in UK so as to provide benefit to all people of the country. Steps like vaccination, immunization should be undertaken so as to prevent the infectious and non infectious disease. Proper strategies should be formed so as to fight any seasonal disease. The work of research and development should be done continuously for betterment of health and social care of the people. Full equipped labs should be prepared for this purpose. People should be continuously educated to so that they can remain protected from the disease and leave their bad habits of drinking and smoking. The government should take effective steps to strengthen the department of health and social care service to the people.
Present paper talks about the health and concept of public health which ensure the overall health status of the people living in a particular country. Working on the present paper helped me to understand the different agencies based on the local, national and international level working towards ensuring health and safety for the public in a country. There are different organizations at local level such as local authority and health watch while at national level there are different organizations working in the country such as NHS and British health which ensure the health & safety of people in UK. International organizations and their role in ensuring health and safety for the people in UK have also been evaluated through present paper. Statistics regarding infectious and non-infectious diseases were also explored which reveals regarding impact and overall frequency of such diseases. Further different approaches to handle disease incidence were evaluated which helps in order to understand the effective approach which can be adopted. Implications of illness were also evaluated through present paper which helps in order to understand requirement of services for the particular type of disease in health and social care context. Finally, present paper helped in order to understand the factors which are impacting the health and well being of human being.
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