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Specialised Cells Types And Functions


There are over 200 different cell types in the human body. Each type of cell is specialised to carry out a particular function, either solely but usually by forming a specific tissue. Different tissues then combine and form specific organs, where the organ is like a factory where every type of cell has its job. Since every tissue has its function that contributes to the multifunctionality of an organ, every kind of cell is equally essential. This Specialised Cells Types And Functions blog will provide you with an ultimate guide on specialised cells. If you ask, “what are specialised cells?” or ask “How to write a detailed assignment on specialised cells?” read this post to discover the definitions and some intriguing examples of specialised cells. The General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) is an academic qualification pursued by secondary education pupils in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Students pursuing GCSE are asked to write a biology assignment on specialised cells.

What is a Specialised Cell?

Many GCSE students often question, “What is a specialised cell?” Well, The human body is a fantastic feat of engineering. It includes nerve fibres, blood vessels, digestive system and a solid skeletal framework. Even more incredible is that all of this is formed from only one type of cell component. A cell is a basic unit of life. Among them, some cells are unique. They are known as specialised cells. Specialised means even though they are similar, these cells differ in shape, size, or function depending on their role in our bodies. These cells have developed certain specific characteristics to perform a particular position.

Example: Red blood cells are significant examples of specialised cells. They carry oxygen around the human body when bound to a haemoglobin protein.

If you are still pondering over the question, “What are specialised cells?”

BBC Bitesize Biology Specialised Cells: Definition

Bitesize is the BBC’s free study support resource for school-age students in the United Kingdom. It is designed to aid GCSE and other students in schoolwork and for older students in exams. It can help students nearly anywhere in the world. According to the biology teachers of BBC Bitesize, often the GCSE students type “What are specialised cells?” into the search bar.

Specialised Cells Types And Functions, What is a Specialised Cell, How to write a detailed assignment on specialised cells
List of Specialised cells

Specialised Plant Cells: Definition

Specialised plant cells have some unique characteristics and what the normal cell does. Example- In pitcher plants, the leave cells are specialised to trap the insects. Similarly, in mangrove plants, the root cells are specialised to provide air and water into the tree by growing out of the soil.

Here Is A List Of Specialised Plant Cells. Have A Look At Them:

  • Root Hair Cells: One of the specialised cells of plants is root hair cells. It allows plants to absorb more water. They also enable a plant to absorb the minerals it needs to be alive.
  • Xylem cells: The xylem is a specialised cell that transports the water up to the plant’s stem and into the leaves. The xylem vessels are made up of connected dead xylem cells. The end walls of the dead cells are broken to allow the water to move through.
  • Phloem cells: The phloem is specialised to transport food products to parts of the plant where they are required. The end walls of phloem cells contain small holes to allow food products to move up and down the phloem vessels.

Examples Of Specialised Cells In The Human Body

Apart from the plants, there are specialised cells in the human body. These cells are different from the normal cells, like the nerve cells, which controls neural coordination. Let’s have a look at the specialised cells in the human body:

  • Muscle cells: Muscle cells help a human being to make movements. These cylindrical cells are formed of banded fibres that allow contraction.
  • Sperm cells: Specialised sperm cells are essential for human reproduction. As they move to locate an egg for fertilisation, these cells are highly mobile. The mitochondria within the sperm cells provide the energy that these specialised cells move at a high rate of speed.
  • Leukocyte: Leukocytes are specialised cells that keep the human body from infection. These cells find and destroy microbes within the human body, responding to and treating the disease.
  • Red blood cells: RBC carries oxygen around the body, delivering it to organs that require this life-giving gas. Cells of this type are primarily composed of haemoglobin, a chemical that allows the uptake and carrying of oxygen.
  • Neurons: Neurons are specialised cells that carry messages into the human brain. It will enable them to communicate from the basic thought process and make body functioning possible. These cells have extensions known as dendrites and axons that bring information into and release information from the cell itself. Some of these also carry chemicals that are specialised for electrochemical communication.

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