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Unit 10 Financial Accounting

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Aim of Unit 10 Financial Accounting

The main aim of this unit is to identify the importance of various principles in financial accounting. This will help them to keep a record and check on the final accounts. A basic understanding can be developed about the financial accounting and the ways by which proper statements and balance sheets can be measured. The students will be making a proper analysis of the accounting principles present in an organization. Accounts for sole entrepreneurship, traders as well as limited companies can be analysed. Financial accounting aims to identify the calculations of all the accounting statements with the help of a balance sheet.

Learning outcomes

LO1 Record business transactions using double entry book-keeping, and be able to extract a trial balance

LO2 Prepare final accounts for sole-traders, partnerships and limited companies in accordance with appropriate principles, conventions and standards

LO3 Perform bank reconciliations to ensure company and bank records are correct.

LO4 Reconcile control accounts and shift recorded transactions from the suspense accounts to the right accounts

LO1 Record business transactions using double entry book-keeping, and be able to extract a trial balance

Business transactions take place in form of sales, purchases and delivery of financial receipts. The calculations can take place in manual and electronic systems. It is necessary to make use of double entry booking for storing the records in sales and purchases before they are finally transferred into the ledger account. The recording of debits and credits has its application in financial accounting. Trial balance helps in correction of errors and its importance in making effective calculations are rightly upheld.

LO2 Prepare final accounts for sole-traders, partnerships and limited companies in accordance with appropriate principles, conventions and standards

Financial reports contain an overall record of the expenses and transactions carried out at a particular period of time. Financial statements are the record of transactions that has to be calculated to derive at an accurate result. There are final accounts for sole traders, partnerships and limited companies. It is necessary to understand the rules and principles and achieve consistency and materiality. Adjustments are required in accruals, bad debts and payments.

LO3 Perform bank reconciliations to ensure company and bank records are correct

Bank reconciliation is a process of making a match between balances of cash account to the information present in the bank account. It is necessary to ensure that the records are correct and up to date. There is a distinction between balances in bank account and statements in the bank. Various tools have to be used to make a check on the ledger accounts and balances. All entries are inserted into the ledger account for making preparation of profit and loss account.

LO4 Reconcile control accounts and shift recorded transactions from the suspense accounts to the right accounts

Control accounts are the account used to make a record on the subsidiary accounts and to make cross check on them. Suspense accounts are balances that are entered into the account before it is transferred into the final account. Reconciliation is the process of managing the balance of two accounts. It has to be ensured that the amount of money spent matches with the amount that has been deducted from the account.

Learning outcomes and assessment criteria

Pass Merit Distinction
LO1 Record business transactions using double entry book-keeping, and be able to extract a trial balance  
P1 Apply the double entry book-keeping system of debits and credits. Record sales and purchases transactions in a general ledger. M1 Analyse transactions to show the progression from a previous trial balance to the next one using double entry book- keeping. D1 Apply trial balance figures to show which statement of financial accounts they will end up in.
P2 Produce a trial balance applying the use of the balance off rule to complete the ledger.    
LO2 Prepare final accounts for sole-traders, partnerships and limited companies in accordance with appropriate principles, conventions and standards  
P3 Prepare final accounts from given trial balance. P4 Produce final accounts for a range of examples that include sole-traders, partnerships and limited companies. M2 Make adjustments to balances of sum accounts for example, accruals, depreciation and prepayments before preparing the final accounts. D2 Compare the essential features of each financial account statement to analyse the differences between them in terms purpose, structure and content.
LO3 Perform bank reconciliations to ensure company  
and bank records are correct  
P5 Apply the bank M3 Apply the D3 Prepare accurate bank
reconciliation process to reconciliation process reconciliations that apply
prepare a number of demonstrating the use of appropriate tools and
bank reconciliations. deposit in transit, techniques to check
  outstanding checks and general accounts and
  Not Sufficient Funds (NSF) balance sheets.
  check.  


Pass Merit Distinction
LO4 Reconcile control accounts and shift recorded  
transactions from the suspense accounts to the right  
accounts  
P6 Explain the process M4 Demonstrate D4 Produce accurate
taken to reconcile control understanding of the accounts that have been
accounts and clear different types of reconciled applying the
suspense accounts using accounts and how and appropriate methods.
given account examples. why they are reconciled.  

Link

This unit links to the following related units:

Unit 5: Management Accounting

Unit 13: Financial Reporting

Unit 14: Advanced Management Accounting

Unit 15: Financial Management

Unit 6: Managing and Running a Small Business