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Why do Metals Conduct Electricity & Metallic Bonding by HND


In this blog, we will tell Why do Metals Conduct Electricity? Some will ask why are metals good conductors of electricity. The most direct explanation would be because they have free electrons, which can move when a force is applied. This force can be an electric field caused by an applied voltage. The movement of electrons corresponds to a current. However, it does not tell us much as we do not know why they are free. For that, we need to take a look into band theory. Now you get a bit of why do metals conduct electricity and why are metals good conductors of electricity. In single atoms, electrons can only take on discrete energy levels corresponding to the orbitals of that atom. When atoms bond to form molecules, they combine their respective orbitals to form molecular orbitals. One thing to keep in mind is that the number of orbitals stays the same. So adding atoms to our molecule, and hence atomic orbitals will increase the number of molecular orbitals. However, the range of energies does not increase by nearly the same amount. It means that energy states are getting closer and closer to each other in energy as the molecule keeps growing. I hope you got it; why do metals conduct electricity, and why are metals good conductors of electricity. The mobility of electrons is the cause of why metals conduct electricity. Metals conduct electricity because the electrons inside the metal are somewhat free to move. So when electricity is passed through metals, electrons bear electricity and spread it all over the metal.

Why do Metals Conduct Electricity & Metallic Bonding by HND Assignment Help

Understanding Metallic Bonding

Metallic Bonding is a kind of bonding of electrons delocalized over more than one atom. All metal atoms share their outermost electrons and other elements where atoms orbit a distinct atom. The electrons roam all over, being shared among all the atoms. Metal atoms form a repeating pattern, and the space between them is filled with electrons that move freely in metallic bonding. I hope you got it; why do metals conduct electricity, and why are metals good conductors of electricity. Like in ionic bonding, the metal ions give up electrons to the other atom. In metallic bonding, the metal ions give up the same elections to a sea of electrons. Metallic bonding holds together as every atom in it is ultimately charged, and the negatively charged sea acts as a glue that binds all of these atoms together. A unique type of bonding is essential as it is the reason behind all of the stimulating properties of metals, such as:

  • Shininess
  • Strength
  • Thermal conductivity
  • Malleability
  • Ductility
  • High melting point
  • Electrical conductivity

If we go into more details, we will discover many quantum-mechanics phenomenons at play. However, more straightforward concepts will give us more clarity on the topic without confusion. The bandgap is one of them in metallic bonding. It explains why do metals conduct electricity and why are metals good conductors of electricity. Some materials form an intermediate case with a bandgap, but it is small enough for a tiny fraction of the electrons to overcome it. These materials conduct electricity, but they do not do it very well due to the small number of free electrons in metallic bonding.

Why do Metals Conduct Electricity & Metallic Bonding by HND

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